Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (also known as PRSS10; Serine protease 10) is a protease with a type II transmembrane domain that is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including prostate cancer.1 Androgenic hormones in prostate cancer cells have been shown to up-regulate TMPRSS2, but androgen-independent prostate cancer tissue has been shown to down-regulate it.2 Although the biological function for TMPRSS2 has not yet been discovered,1 this protein facilitates viral entry into host cells for the influenza virus, and several coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2.3
Several recent studies have looked at how angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) helps facilitate infection by SARS-CoV-2, as well as previously, SARS-CoV.4,5,6 However, priming of the viral spike protein by cleaving the S protein at S1/S2 and S2 sites by TMPRSS2 is a necessary initial step for entry into the cell.3,4,7 The S protein cleavage allows for the fusing of viral and cellular membranes, engaging the ACE2 receptor for entry into the cell and subsequent infection.3,4 Studies looking at TMPRSS2-deficient or TMPRSS2 knockout mice show that they appear to be healthy,8 suggesting that TMPRSS2 could be a more suitable and safe target than ACE2 for treatment or prevention of respiratory virus infections, including SARS-CoV-2.3,7,9,10
Reddot Biotech is pleased to offer a Human Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 ELISA kit in both our traditional and Ready-To-Use formats. Our Human TMPRSS2 kits have a nanogram range (detection range 0.156-10ng/mL; sensitivity 0.056ng/mL) and are suitable for use with a wide variety of different sample types. For more information and to see the product manual, visit our product pages for RDR-TMPRSS2-Hu and RD-TMPRSS2-Hu. For any other questions, please feel free to contact us.
References and further reading:
- TMPRSS2 transmembrane serine protease 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI. (n.d.) Retrieved September 25, 2020, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/7113
- Yu, J., Yu, J., Mani, R. S., Cao, Q., Brenner, C. J., Cao, X., ... & Gong, Y. (2010). An integrated network of androgen receptor, polycomb, and TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions in prostate cancer progression. Cancer cell, 17(5), 443-454.
- Bestle, D., Heindl, M. R., Limburg, H., Pilgram, O., Moulton, H., Stein, D. A., ... & Becker, S. (2020). TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential for proteolytic activation and spread of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway epithelial cells and provide promising drug targets. bioRxiv.
- Hoffmann, M., Kleine-Weber, H., Schroeder, S., Krüger, N., Herrler, T., Erichsen, S., ... & Müller, M. A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 cell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell.
- Ou, X., Liu, Y., Lei, X., Li, P., Mi, D., Ren, L., ... & Xiang, Z. (2020). Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-12.
- Walls, A. C., Park, Y. J., Tortorici, M. A., Wall, A., McGuire, A. T., & Veesler, D. (2020). Structure, function, and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. Cell.
- Baughn, L. B., Sharma, N., Elhaik, E., Sekulic, A., Bryce, A. H., & Fonseca, R. (2020, September). Targeting TMPRSS2 in SARS-CoV-2 infection. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 95, No. 9, pp. 1989-1999). Elsevier.
- Kim, T. S., Heinlein, C., Hackman, R. C., & Nelson, P. S. (2006). Phenotypic analysis of mice lacking the Tmprss2-encoded protease. Molecular and cellular biology, 26(3), 965-975.
- Sakai, K., Ami, Y., Tahara, M., Kubota, T., Anraku, M., Abe, M., ... & Ainai, A. (2014). The host protease TMPRSS2 plays a major role in in vivo replication of emerging H7N9 and seasonal influenza viruses. Journal of virology, 88(10), 5608-5616.
- Iwata-Yoshikawa, N., Okamura, T., Shimizu, Y., Hasegawa, H., Takeda, M., & Nagata, N. (2019). TMPRSS2 contributes to virus spread and immunopathology in the airways of murine models after coronavirus infection. Journal of virology, 93(6).
- Matsuyama, S., Nao, N., Shirato, K., Kawase, M., Saito, S., Takayama, I., ... & Sakata, M. (2020). Enhanced isolation of SARS-CoV-2 by TMPRSS2-expressing cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(13), 7001-7003.